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How does typhoid spread?


is a rapid serological test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. It tests for IgM and IgG antibodies against the outer membrane protein of Salmonella typhi, which are the most common antibodies in people with typhoid fever.

Typhoid fever is a fever that could result from no hygiene. And that’s why it’s widespread in developing countries like India, where sanitation arrangements are fairly poor. Nearly 494 out of every 100,000 people in India get typhoid, and globally, typhoid affects nearly 21.5 million people annually.

Typhoid fever is caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi. Anybody can get typhoid if they:

    1. Eat contaminated foods

    2. Drink contaminated fluids

Typhoid fever

   Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection caused by a common food-borne bacterium called Salmonella typhi. When ingested, the bacteria can enter the body through the mouth and make its way to the intestines, where it multiplies. This eventually leads to profusion of bacteria in a person’s bloodstream, or bacteraemia. As a result, a fever occurs.

Agents of transmission

The original sentence appears to be a misuse of the word “transmission”.

Infectious diseases can be transferred from animals to humans. When this happens, there is a high risk of the disease becoming endemic, meaning that it spreads among humans. Typhoid fever is one of these diseases, and it usually spreads through contaminated food and water. Here are some ways the contamination happens:

Improper waste disposal and dumping sewage into water sources

Unclean public water supply

Perforations in water pipes that allow bacteria to seep into the water

Typhoid fever is a serious disease that can be almost eliminated with these three steps:

Providing enough sewage treatment and proper waste disposal

Filtering and chlorinating drinking water

Eliminating open defecation

Four stages of Typhoid Fever

Stage 1: Dry cough, headache, indolence or fever. Temperature not much higher than normal.

Stage 2: Fever runs high and stomach becomes distended. Weight loss is another sign of stage 2 typhoid fever. Hallucinations may occur. The person might be lethargic and agitated in alternation. 

Stage 3: Severe intestinal perforation causes abdominal haemorrhage. Encephalitis may set in.

In the fourth stage

Extremely high fever

More health complications

Dangers of advanced typhoid fever:


Kidney failure


Inflammation of the pancreas’

Inflammation of the heart

Typhoid Treatment

Typhoid fever is diagnosed using complete blood count and stool tests, which doctors can also use to determine the antibiotic that will be most effective.  A person can identify their blood type at home using a rapid blood typing kit. The antibiotic options include:






This article looks at some of the most common types of typhoid blood tests and what each test checks at home service.

What should typhoid patients eat?

Typhoid patients require food that will provide not just nutrition but also enough strength for the body to combat the bacteria and deal with the effects of antibiotics. Here are a few staples of typhoid diet:

Carbohydrate-rich foods like grains and potatoes (in a porridge state for easy digestion)

Lean meat, dairy, soy products and chia seeds– all of these foods contain protein that the person needs for tissue repair

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